A lot of sympathy was felt for the athletes forced by their governments to leave the Olympic Village; there was little sympathy outside Africa for the governments' attitude. Twenty-two countries Guyana was the only non-African nation boycotted the Montreal Olympics because New Zealand was not banned. The Republic of China refused and as a result did not participate again until , when it returned under the name " Chinese Taipei " and used a special flag. In and , the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's games. Sixty-five nations refused to compete at the Moscow Olympics in because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but 16 nations from Western Europe did compete at the Moscow Olympics.
The boycott reduced the number of nations participating to only 81, the lowest number of nations to compete since The Soviet Union and 14 of its Eastern Bloc partners except Romania countered by skipping the Los Angeles Olympics in , arguing the safety of their athletes could not be guaranteed there and "chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria are being whipped up in the United States". There have been growing calls for boycotts of the Olympics in Beijing in protest of China's poor human rights record and response to the recent disturbances in Tibet, Darfur, and Taiwan.
There are also campaigns calling for Chinese goods to be boycotted. One of the main problems facing the Olympics and international sports in general is doping , or performance enhancing drugs. In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to enhance their performance. For example, the winner of the marathon at the Games , Thomas J.
Hicks , was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. As these methods became more extreme, gradually the awareness grew that this was no longer a matter of health through sports.
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In the mids, sports federations put a ban on doping, and the IOC followed suit in The first and so far only Olympic death caused by doping occurred in At the cycling road race in Rome the Danish rider Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines. The first Olympic athlete to test positive for doping use was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall , a Swedish pentathlete at the Summer Olympics , who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.
Seventy-three athletes followed him over the next 38 years, several medal winners among them. The most publicised doping-related disqualification was that of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson , who won the m at the Seoul Olympics , but tested positive for stanozolol. Despite the testing, many athletes continued to use doping without getting caught. In , documents were revealed that showed many East German female athletes had been unknowingly administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers as a government policy.
The recent Summer Olympics and Winter Olympics have shown that this battle is not nearly over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to doping offences. Test results indicated the presence of the banned-stimulant pseudophedrine which had been prescribed to her by an Olympic doctor. Raducan had been unaware of the presence of the illegal substance in the medicine that had been prescribed to her for a cold she had during the games.
During the Winter Olympics , only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The only other case involved 12 members with high levels of haemoglobin and their punishment was a five day suspension for health reasons. The International Olympic Committee introduced blood testing for the first time during these games.
Politics interfered with the Olympics on several occasions, the most well-known of which was the Summer Olympics in Berlin , where the games were used as propaganda by the German Nazis. At this Olympics, a true Olympic spirit was shown by Luz Long , who helped Jesse Owens a black athlete to win the long jump, at the expense of his own silver medal. Instead, the Soviets organized an international sports event called Spartakiads, from onward.
Many athletes from Communist organizations or close to them chose not to participate or were even barred from participating in Olympic Games, and instead participated in Spartakiads. A political incident on a smaller scale occurred at the Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Two American track-and-field athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos , performed the Black Power salute on the victory stand of the meter track and field race. The USOC opted for the former. The government of the Islamic Republic of Iran specifically orders its athletes not to compete in any olympic heat, semi-final, or finals that includes athletes from Israel.
At the Olympics, an Iranian judoka who had otherwise earned his place, did not compete in a heat against an Israeli judoka.
11 Black Winter Olympians Who Have Made History
Despite what Coubertin had hoped for, the Olympics did not bring total peace to the world. In fact, three Olympiads had to pass without Olympics because of war: due to World War I the Games were cancelled, and the summer and winter games of and were cancelled because of World War II. During the Summer Olympics in Munich, a massacre of 11 members from the Israeli Olympic team occurred.
The team members were taken hostage and eventually killed, along with a German police officer, by the Palestinian group Black September. During the Summer Olympics in in Atlanta , a bombing at the Centennial Olympic Park killed two and injured others. The bomb was set by Eric Robert Rudolph, an conservative American domestic terrorist, who is currently serving a life sentence.
Olympic Games since then have required an extremely high degree of security due to the fear of possible terrorist activities. A number of organizations are involved in organizing the Olympic Games. Together they form the Olympic Movement. The rules and guidelines by which these organizations operate are outlined in the Olympic Charter. It can be seen as the government of the Olympics, as it takes care of the daily problems and makes all important decisions, such as choosing the host city of the Games, and the programme of the Olympics.
OCOGs are dissolved after the celebration of each Games, once all subsequent paperwork has been completed. More broadly speaking, the term Olympic Movement is sometimes also meant to include everybody and everything involved in the Olympics, such as national sport governing bodies, athletes, media, and sponsors of the Olympic Games. Most Olympic Games have been held in European and North American cities; only a few games have been held in other places, and all bids by countries in South America and Africa have failed. Many believe the games should expand to include locations in poorer regions.
Economists point out that the massive infrastructure investments could springboard cities into earning higher GDP after the games. However, many host cities regret the high costs associated with hosting the games as a poor investment . In the past, the IOC has often been criticised for being a monolithic organisation, with several members remaining a member at old age, or even until their deaths.
Under his presidency, the Olympic Movement made great progress, but has been seen as autocratic and corrupt.
Samaranch's ties with the Franco's regime in Spain and his long term as a president 21 years, until he was 81 years old have also been points of critique. In , it became known that several IOC members had taken bribes from the organising committee for the Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City , Utah , in exchange for a vote on the city at the election of the host city.
The IOC started an investigation, which led to four members resigning and six being expelled. The scandal set off further reforms, changing the way in which host cities are elected to avoid further bribes. Also, more active and former athletes were allowed in the IOC, and the membership terms have been limited.
Later, a similar movement in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia organized to protest the hosting of the Winter Games. These movements were particularly concerned about adverse local economic impact and dislocation of people to accommodate the hosting of the Olympics. The documentary claimed it is possible to bribe IOC members into voting for a particular candidate city. They have denied the allegations.
Others have alleged that the Winter Olympics were held in Turin because officials bribed the IOC and so Turin got the games and Sion, Switzerland which was the favorite did not. The Olympic Movement has been accused of being overprotective of its symbolism in particular, it claims an exclusive and monopolistic copyright over any arrangement of five rings and the term "olympics" , and have taken action against things unrelated to sport, such as the role-playing game Legend of the Five Rings.
It was accused of homophobia in when it successfully sued the Gay Olympics, an event now known as the Gay Games, to ban it from using the term "olympics" in its name. The Olympic movement uses many symbols, most of them representing Coubertin's ideas and ideals. The Olympic Rings are the most widely used symbol. The five colored rings on a white field form the Olympic Flag. The colors, white, red, blue, green, yellow, and black, were chosen such that each nation has at least one of these colors in its national flag.
The flag was adopted in , but the first Games at which it was flown were Antwerp, It is hoisted at each celebration of the Games. Coubertin's ideals are probably best illustrated by the Olympic Creed :.
Prior to each Games, the Olympic Flame is lit in Olympia, Greece and brought to the host city by runners carrying the torch in relay. There it plays an important role in the opening ceremonies. Though the torch fire has been around since , the relay was introduced in as part of the then German government's attempt to promote their National Socialist ideology. The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in It has played an important part of the games since with the debut of Misha , a Russian bear.
Those Strange Olympic Sports
Apart from the traditional elements, the host nation ordinarily presents artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of that country. Various traditional elements frame the opening ceremonies of a celebration of the Olympic Games. The ceremonies typically start with the hoisting of the host country's flag and the performing of its national anthem. Template:Fact The traditional part of the ceremonies starts with a "parade of nations" or of athletes , during which most participating athletes march into the stadium, country by country.
One honoured athlete, typically a top competitor, from each country carries the flag of his or her nation, leading the entourage of other athletes from that country. Traditionally starting at the Summer Olympics Greece marches first, because of its historical status as the origin of the Olympics, while the host nation marches last.
outer-edge-design.com/components/monitoring/1164-cell-phone.php In , when the Games were held in Athens, Greece marched last as host nation rather than first, although the flag of Greece was carried in first. Between these two nations, all other participating nations march in alphabetical order of the dominant language of the host country, Template:Fact or in French or English alphabetical order if the host country does not write its dominant language in an alphabet which has a set order.
In the Summer Olympics in Barcelona , both Spanish and Catalan were official languages of the games, but due to politics surrounding the use of Catalan, the nations entered in French alphabetical order. Before , the Opener often used to make a short Speech of Welcome before declaring the Games open. The only exception was in , when U. Despite the Games having been awarded to a particular city and not to the country in general, the Olympic Charter presently requires the Opener to be the host country's head of state. There are five examples from the United States alone where the Games were not opened by the head of state.
Next, the Olympic Flag is carried horizontally since the Summer Olympics into the stadium and hoisted as the Olympic Anthem is played. The flag bearers of all countries circle a rostrum , where one athlete since the Summer Olympics and one judge since the Summer Olympics speak the Olympic Oath, declaring they will compete and judge according to the rules. Beginning at the post- World War I Summer Olympics , the lighting of the Olympic Flame was for 68 years followed by the release of doves , symbolizing peace.
Opening ceremonies have been held outdoors, usually on the main athletics stadium, but those for the Winter Olympics will be the first to be held indoors, at the BC Place Stadium. Various traditional elements also frame the closing ceremonies of an Olympic Games, which take place after all athletic events have concluded..